The common disease which affects valves of the heart are:

  • Rheumatic fever
  • Degenerative valvular disease
  • Infections called Bacterial endocarditis
  • Valve leaks after myocardial infarction

Indications for valve replacement:

  • Valve stenosis leaks
  • Dilated chambers of the heart
  • Thrombo embolic episodes
  • Severe pulmonary artery hypertension

Types of Valves:

  • Mechanical valves (metal)
  • Tissue valves (a. Bovine valves b. Porcine valves)
  • Dilated chambers of the heart

Advantages of tissue valves:

  • No need for lifelong anticoagulation
  • Less thromboembolic episodes

Disadvantages of Mechanical valves:

  • Will require lifelong anticoagulation
  • Thromboembolic phenomenon is very common

Approach to valve surgery:

  • Midline central chest incision
  • Side incision through chest

Duration of hospital stay – 7 days

Safe surgery with less than 1% mortality rates

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